The Crow Review

Scott Speakman
English Project
April 18, 2000
The Crow Reviewed
Throughout the history of movies, movie companies have tried to do it bigger better and more exciting. They bring in bigger stars, better special effects and more convincing stories, which causes the masses to flock to the theatres in eager anticipation of each movie. The audience usually gets what the audience wantsmore violence and more action the world over. “The Crow” has elements of different types of movie genres the horror, adventure, film noir and the western. In this movie there is no difference as is about to be shown in the following paper. They mix the genres together quite well in this movie to make it a true hybrid genre. From the mean streets, the use of shadows and surprise like the horror movie, to the adventure of the over all story. They also mix in a bit of western with the black cowboy that is in the comic, but doesn’t even appear in the movie itself. Now this paper shows how the movie appeals to the different genres using characters, settings, lighting and other effects to make the movie more interesting.

In “The Crow,” it starts out with a legend of the crow showing the horror aspect of the movie. It says that “when a person dies, a crow carries there soul to the land of the dead and sometimes a soul dies with such anguish that the soul cant rest, and sometimes, just sometimes the crow can bring that spirit back to put the wrong things right.” Which was in the case of Eric Draven, is what happened. Him and his fiance (Shelly) both are killed while fighting tenant eviction eviction in there building. Eric Draven being the way that he was before he was killed, a rock singer and guitarist, truly makes him the unlikely hero of this story. The way that he paints his face in a mimes face with a smile is quite different then was in the comic, he was suppose to paint his face like the face of tragedy. Instead they do it like a mime, and this is quite ironic as to what he is supposed to stand for. This creates a sense of dramatic horror to an effect throughout the movie. The street gang that killed him for the tenant eviction made him quite the man made demon, having only one thing that was on his mind, the revenge of his and Shelly’s death to put his soul to rest. Eric and Shelly were murdered the day before they were to be married on Devils Night (the night before Halloween). Which in the story holds significance as the night that the city has hundreds of fires set throughout it. In taking his revenge he shows many traits that come to build on his character. He shows a certain sarcastic wit that makes him all the more interesting to watch. Like when Eric is about to kill Tintin, Tintin says “hey man, come on give me a break man” and Eric reply’s “victims, aren’t we all” and then it cuts out with the knife in Eric’s hand. There is also a certain amount of mystery that surrounds him, when he disappears into the shadows many times during the movie.

The aesthetic value of “The Crow” is shown in all of the locations that the scenes take place in. In some of the scenes in shows film noir with the dilapidated streets and buildings. It also shows the lawlessness of the city streets by all of the by all the thieves, and how they have taken over them. It also shows the menacing people gathering around the abandoned streets, which seems like the other types are afraid to show there faces outside of there homes, thinking that they may be robbed or worse; killed. The alleys littered with barrels aflame, and homeless people scatted around them warming up. The inside of the buildings looking just the same as the outside, worm out and dilapidated. They’re torn up from the water leading from the room and the broken windows. Worm out form just neglect and not being taken care of. The lighting in the movie is low to

Edgar allan

Edgar Allen Poe and His LifeStory
Edgar Allen Poe was a very famous poet and writer,Poe created many poems and stories such as The Raven, The Tall -Tale Heart, The Fall of The House of Usher and many more. (tompson 1)Edgar lived from 1809 to 1849. He was born on January 19,1809, in Boston Massachusetts but grew up in Richmond Virgina but through his many travels he lived in half a dozen eastern cities. He lived a short and tragic life. His first career was to study in law but soon went against his family and started a career in acting. His critic reviews were poor. Many critics thought his technique was bad.Edgars father was an actor by the name of David Poe and his mother also an actress by the name of Elizabeth.edgar was the second of three children, about the time that the third child was born Edgar’s father died. After his father had died Edgars mother and her two yougest children went to Richmond, his brother William already had been settled with relatives in Baltimore. Poe’s mother was in the lastest stages of her diesease, struggling with two kids, she died. Edgar and , an infant, Rosalie, were orphaned. Poe finally was hit with the reliazation of his parents death.In 1811on a visit of generousity, Mrs. Francis Allen learned of the situation of the Poe babies. Mrs. Allen had no babies of her own and to that she took home handsome little Edgar. Mr. John Allen didn’t aprove of a permant adoption but he began to in time support the child, and became proud of his good looks and intelligence.When Edgar was six years old Mr. Allens bussiness took them to Scotland, they lived there for about five years. Edgar persued his education at the Irvin Grammer School in Irvin, Scotland.After many journeys throughtout his childhood Edgar and the Allens returned to Richmond, Virgina.There at the age of 11 Mr. Allen enrolled Edgar into the English and Classical School attended by sons of the more fashionable families of Richmond.There Edgar began to feel the difference between himself and the others at this school.To this Edgar the sense of injury made its self evident at home with fits of temper and rebellion for which there seemed to the family , no justification. Mr. Allen did not put up with such behavior , Mr.Allen repeatedly reminded Edgar about his “disreputable” parentage.In Edgar’s college years his growing antagonism between father and son, Mr.

Allen was willing to send Edgar to the University of Virgina. Edgar had gone to the university to in fact get away from the Allen house hold. This indescribable social college campus set Edgar in for a major turn around , Edgar began to gamble to where he couldn’t pay off debts he incountered, when Edgar drank is sent him into a wild statof excitement.

Edagr was then pulled out of the University for such behavior. Mr.Allen then out him in a low, routine job at hjis counting house. This was very humiliating for Edgar and he just couldn’t bear it anymore , the answer, to leave home.He left to Boston where he
manage to publish a collection of his poems, desperate for money, he then joined the army under th

King Lear’s Mistake

Shakespeare’s tragedy King Lear is a detailed description of the consequences of one man’s decisions. This fictitious man is Lear, King of England, whose decisions greatly alter his life and the lives of those around him. As Lear bears the status of King, he is a man of great power, but blindly he surrenders all of this power to his daughters as a reward for their demonstration of love towards him. This untimely surrender of his throne sets off a chain reaction of events that sends him through a hellish journey. King Lear is a metaphorical description of one man’s journey through hell in order to appease his mistake.

As the play opens, one can almost immediately see that Lear begins to make mistakes that will eventually result in his downfall. The very first words that he speaks in the play are:
Give me the map there.

Know that we have divided
In three our kingdom; and ’tis our fast intent
To shake all cares and business from our age,
Conferring them on younger strengths while we
Unburdened crawl toward death.(Act I, Sc i, Ln 37-41)
This gives the reader the first indication of Lear’s intent to relinquish his throne. He is growing old and wants to “shake all cares and business” from his age. In a since he wants to retire from a job that you cannot retire from. He has no son to hand his throne down to, so he must give it to his daughters. He offers his daughters pieces of his kingdom a form of reward to his test of love.
Great rivals in our youngest daughter’s love,
Long in our court have made their amorous sojourn,
And here are to be answered. Tell me, my daughters
(Since now we will divest us both of rule,
Interest of territory, cares of state),
Which of you shall we say doth love us most?
That we our largest bounty may extend
Where nature doth with merit challenge.”
(Act I, Sc i, Ln 46-53)
This is the first and most significant of the many mistakes that he commits in this play. By relinquishing his throne to fuel his ego, he disrupts the great chain of being, which states that the King must not challenge the position that the gods have given him. This undermining the gods’ authority results in chaos that tears apart Lear’s world, leaving him, in the end, with nothing. Following this, Lear begins to banish those around him that genuinely care for him; he cannot seem to realize who loves him and wants to help and those who are there to use him. As King he has always been given what he wants and people have always done what he wants. It seems that Lear’s own family does not have that father-daughter bond that regular families have. He sees everybody around him as loyal servants. When they disagree with him or don’t say exactly what he wants; his pride is hurt and he reacts defensively. As we see in the first act, Lear does not listen to Kent’s plea to see closer to the true faces of his daughters. Kent has hurt Lear’s pride by disobeying his order to stay out of his and Cordelia’s way when Lear has already warned him, “The bow is bent and drawn, make from the shaft.” Kent still disobeys Lear and is banished; Lear also proceeds to banish his youngest and previously most loved daughter, Cordelia. This results in Lear surrounding himself with people who only wish to use him, leaving him very vulnerable to attack and betrayal. This is precisely what happens, and it is through this that he discovers his wrongs and amends them.
After distributing his throne, Lear becomes abandoned and estranged from his kingdom, which causes him to lose his sanity. While lost in his grief and self-pity the Fool is introduced to guide Lear back to the sane world, help him realize the mistakes that he has made and get him to act to reverse them. Throughout the play the Fool tells the King little riddles and sayings that makes the King realize his mistakes. Lear was once lost behind a hundred Knights, but now is exposed to the real world and is like a child. He has been used

Changes in the Earth’s Environment

Changes in the Earth’s Environment
The 20th century, especially in the second half, has been one of rapid
change in the Earth’s environment. The impact of humans on the physical form and
functioning of the Earth have reached levels that are global in character, and
have done so at an increasingly mounting speed. 20 years ago the environment was
seen as posing a threat to the future of humanity as death rates from natural
hazards had increased dramatically since the turn of the century. The Earth
though has always been plagued by natural disasters. Now, with the world
population growing at a rapid rate more people are living in hazard prone areas.

Events which may have gone unnoticed previously, only become hazards when there
is intervention with humans and their lifestyle. With the discovery of the ozone
hole in the 1980’s attention was now more focused on the threat humans were
posing to the environment. With scientific evidence to back up pessimistic
predictions of our future, most people, through media coverage, political
pressures and general concern now see the environment as being truly threatened
by human progress and in desperate need of help.

Natural hazards have been defined as …extreme geophysical events greatly
exceeding normal human expectations in terms of their magnitude or frequency and
causing significant damage to man and his works with possible loss of life.

(Heathcote,1979,p.3.). A natural hazard occurs when there is an interaction
between a system of human resource management and extreme or rare natural
phenomena (Chapman,1994). As McCall, Laming and Scott (1991) argue, strictly
speaking there is no hazard unless humans are affected in some way. Yet the line
between natural and human-made hazards is a finely drawn one and usually
overlapping. Doornkamp ( cited in McCall et al, 1992) argues that many hazards
are human induced or at least made worse by the intervention of humans.

In the 1970’s, natural hazards were an important subject of topical study,
as the nature of their impact on human populations and what they valued was
increasing in frequency at quite a rapid rate (Burton, Kates, White, 1978).

During the 75 years after 1900 the population of the earth increased by a
staggering 2.25 billion people. People who needed land on which to live and work.

As the population rose people were dispersed in more places and in larger
numbers than before. The predominant movement of people being from farm to town
or city (Burton et al,1978.). It is this growing world population, Burton et al
(1978) suggest, that is the main reason behind why hazards are increasing and
were seen to pose such a threat to humankind in the 70’s. While the average
number of disasters remained relatively constant at about 30 per year, death
rates climbed significantly.

As the growing world population requires the cultivation of land more prone
to hazards, more people and property are thus exposed to the risk of disaster
than ever before, and as Stow (1992) argues, the death toll inevitably rises. An
example that shows the concern that humans faced from the environment can be
exemplified by the Bangladesh cyclone of 1970, which killed approximately
250,000 people. Although part of the reason for so many deaths can be put down
to a then poorly understood process, land-use can also be implicated. Because of
a rising population, land in Bangladesh was reclaimed by the government and held
against the sea. People in large numbers were then encouraged to occupy the area.

An area which turned out to be one of great risk. Major disruption was
inevitable Burton et al (1978) argue whenever population was in the path of such
forces. Had reasonable measures been taken in advance of the storm, the material
damage, loss of life and social dislocation could have been seriously reduced.

In the 1990’s we live in an information age. Today we have remarkable
monitoring and predictive capabilities for natural hazards. The use of advanced
telecommunications and emergency management, together with the exploitation of
geographic information systems in hazard mitigation has greatly reduced the
extent to which natural hazards are seen as a threat to people in the 90’s
(Chapman et al, 1994). Loss of life and property from natural disasters
continue to rise though as the population of the world rises and puts more
demands on the environment for land resources. White (1974) argues that
environmental risk may be considered to be primarily a function of the value
systems of a society. How dangerous a natural hazard is, is

Brief Description Of Edward Teller

Edward Teller
Edward Teller is a Hungarian-American physicist, known for his work on the hydrogen bomb. Teller was born in Budapest in 1908, and was educated in Germany at the Institute of Technology in Karlsruhe and at the universities of Munich and Leipzig. He received his Ph.D. in physics in 1930. After working at the University of Goettingen with James Frank and at the Niels Bohr Institute, he became Professor of Physics at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. in 1935. In 1941 he became an American citizen. In the same year he joined the U.S. atomic bomb development project known as the Manhattan Project. For more than a decade he worked with the Italian-born physicist Enrico Fermi on this and succeeding projects at Columbia University, at the University of Chicago, and at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Edward Teller managed Los Alamos research on the “Super,” as he called the hydrogen bomb. Destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan and the end of World War II slowed “Super” research. Teller, a strong anti-Communist and sensitive to U.S. and Soviet relations, pushed unsuccessfully to accelerate work on a super-bomb. He was frustrated by the post-war direction of Los Alamos. He accepted a University of Chicago professorship and left Los Alamos in October 1945. In April 1946, Teller returned to Los Alamos and led a secret conference on the “Super.” The conference reviewed his earlier work on fusion, which led to his full-time return to Los Alamos in 1949 to continue research on the hydrogen bomb. On January 31, 1950, President Truman approved hydrogen bomb development and testing, partly as a result of the first Soviet atomic test the previous August. In 1952 he became professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and director of the Livermore, California, division of the university’s radiation laboratory (now Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). He was the principal architect of the hydrogen bomb, first tested in 1952, and he strongly advocated that the United States continue the testing of thermonuclear weapons. He also made contributions to the application of nuclear explosives to peaceful uses. From 1954 to 1958, he served as Associate Director at the new Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. He became a consultant to the laboratory in 1952.In 1975 he retired from teaching, but remained director emeritus of the radiation laboratory. After working on the production of the atomic bomb in the Manhattan Project, Edward Teller went on to become the principal designer of the hydrogen bomb. He remained a steadfast advocate of nuclear weapons testing throughout his life. In recent years, Teller has championed the ”Star Wars” missile defense system, despite the fact that such a system is very expensive and has no conceivable way of working. Teller has written a few books. His books include Conversations on the Dark Secrets of Physics (Plenum Press, 1991), Better a Shield Than a Sword (Free Press, 1987), Pursuit of Simplicity (Pepperdine Press, 1980), and Energy from Heaven and Earth (W. H. Freeman, 1979). Teller has received numerous honors, among them the Albert Einstein Award, the Enrico Fermi Award, the Harvey Prize from the Technion-Israel Institute, and the National Medal of Science.


Safe Sex vs. Unsafe Sex

The “sexual revolution” of the 1960’s has been stopped dead in its
tracks by the AIDS epidemic. The danger of contracting AIDS is so real
now that it has massively affected the behavior of both gay and straight
folks who formerly had elected to lead an active sexual life that included
numerous new sexual contacts. The safest option regarding AIDS and sex
is total abstinence from all sexual contact. For those who prefer to
indulge in sexual contact, this is often far too great a sacrifice. But
it IS an option to be considered.

For those who wish to have sexual contact with folks on a relatively casual
basis, there have been devised rules for “safe sex”. These rules are very
strict, and will be found quite objectionable by most of us who have
previously enjoyed unrestricted sex. But to violate these rules is
to risk unusually horrible death. Once one gets used to them the rule for
“safe sex” do allow for quite acceptable sexual enjoyment in most cases.

Note that even when one is conscientiously following the recommendations for
safe sex, accidents can happen. Condoms can break. One may have small cuts
or tears in ones skin that one is unaware of. Thus, following rules for
“safe sex” does NOT guarantee that one will not get AIDS. It does, however,
greatly reduce the chances. There are many examples of sexually active
couples where one member has AIDS disease and the other remains seronegative
even after many months of safe sex with the diseased person. It is
particularly encouraging to note that, due to education programs among San
Francisco gay males, the incidence of new cases of AIDS infection among
that high risk group has dropped massively. Between practice of safe sex and
a significant reduction in the number of casual sexual contacts, the spread
of AIDS is being massively slowed in that group. Similar responsible
action MUST be taken by straight folks to further slow the spread of AIDS,
to give our researchers time to find the means to fight it.

Despite a veritable blitz of AIDS information, experts claim that too few are
changing their lifestyles or behavior sufficiently to protect themselves from
AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. A recent Canadian poll revealed
widespread ignorance of the fact that AIDS is primarily a sexually acquired
infection, not caught by touch. The survey showed that although sexual
intercourse has risen steeply in the past 10 years, less than 25 percent of
adults aged 18 to 34 have altered their sexual behavior to protect themselves
against AIDS, i.e. by consistent use of condoms and spermicide. THE CENTRAL
A CONDOM (latex, not made of animal material) plus a reliable spermicide.

Studies with infected hemophiliacs show that condom use by a regular sex reduces
infection risks, compared to unprotected sex. And regular use may bring the
added reward of preventing other sexually transmitted-diseases such as gonorrhea
and chlamydia or unwanted pregnancy. Many educators say that, by whatever means,
AIDS information must get out to young people at an early enough age for them to
absorb it before becoming sexually active. The best way to avoid AIDS is to
regard it as a highly lethal disease and treat it common sense prevention.

Avoiding infection is IN ONE’S OWN HANDS. To halt its spread, people are
encouraged to and apply accurate AIDS information to their living styles and
sexual partners in order to reduce the risk of getting or transmitting the virus.

Health promoters claim that “reaching the many who don’t want to know” is no
easy task. They suggest that educators must learn how and to communicate AIDS
information. Many Public Health Departments are now taking the lead in education
about AIDS with large scale public awareness programs.

Premarital sex is also bad for your physical health. Sexually transmitted
diseases have receivedabundant attention from the press in recent
years. Equal time has not been given to the opinion held by many medical experts
that extra-marital abstinence is without a doubt the best way to avoid these
diseases. Premarital sex is hardly an expression of freedom. Young people who
become sexually active in response to peer pressure to be sophisticated and
independent are actually becoming victims of current public opinion. No one is
really free who engages in any activity in order to impress the majority.

As of now, no other current methods of contraception are considered effective
enough to count on. The only sure way


Measles Virus
In the 1800s the measles was a very dangerous disease, and when people who come in contact with it will die, if they have never been exposed to the virus before. The measles is transmitted through the air. The way that the virus is transmitted is that infected droplets are released by coughing, sneezing, and by talking. When the infected droplets that contain the measles are in the air, they are taken into the body through the mouth, nose and eyes of the potential person that could get the virus. People with low respiratory tract, which is the lungs and bronchi, are more likely to get the infection. During the next two to four days after the infection penetrates the body, the measles virus replicates in the respiratory cells and then spreads to the draining lymph nodes, where it reproduces again. Then it moves into the blood stream, carried by the white blood cells. This results in the virus being carried all over the body, which leads to infecting other places inside the body. During this time, the infected person feels fine and the measles infection and incubation stages are very unnoticeable. The next stage of the measles happens after eight to twelve days. The infected person has symptoms of fever, weakness and loss of appetite. Coughing and running of the eyes and nose are also seen. Now the infection is spreading all over the tissues through out the body. They also trigger the bodys immune system, which causes the symptoms. When the measles virus infects the immune system and interacts with the antibodies and T cells, a measles rash begins on the face and very quickly spreads to the body, arms and legs. The fever and cough become more intense after the fifth day. The rash turns into 3-4 mm red maculopapular lesions, which are flat and slightly raised. Pretty much this virus starts on the face, behind the ears, and moves downward all over the body. After awhile the rash begins to disappear, but the immune system is still weak. Making people who were infected with the measles more prone to other infections, making the immune system more susceptible to become infected, which in the early days of the measles caused many deaths.
With the growth of medical technology and research, a measles vaccine was produced. It is given to children before the age of four, and the measles infection is on the decline. With this vaccine, the person produces, anti-measles antibodies, which are effective in about 95-97% of the people who get the vaccine.
Once a person is infected with measles once, they usually produce lifelong protection from re-infection. This conclusion was brought up by Peter Panum in 1846, a Danish medical officer who was studying the outbreak of measles. One of the biggest outbreaks of measles was during the Civil War. This was before Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and Joseph Lister perfected the Germ Theory of Disease.Two-Thirds of the soldiers that died during the war, were killed by uncontrolled infections disease. At least 4,000 died of the measles on the Union side alone. This proves that once measles are in an isolated area, it is hard to control, and fighting off the disease is at a minimum.
The actual cause of why humans were infected by the measles is unknown. The main theory is that humans became infected with the disease when they were in the same area of herds of dogs. The disease was first identified a virus in 1911, when respiratory secretions of an infected person with measles, were passed through a filter designed to retard bacteria, but allow the passage of the virus. Once the conclusion of once infected with the measles, you have life long protection of never getting it again, the vaccine was developed.
As of today measles is not as bad as it was before, each year the number of measles cases goes down. Once a person gets vaccinated for the virus, it is very hard to obtain it, and with the medical technology today, fighting the disease with treatments is available for the person to overcome this virus.
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Federal Reserve And The Economic Bubble

On Tuesday, November 16, 1999, the Federal Reserve Board will decide whether or not to tighten monetary policy at the Federal Open Market Committee meeting. Throughout the year the Fed has been somewhat hesitant to raise rates, which could slow the economy. While raising the Federal Funds and Discount Rates could, in the long run, lead to higher interest rates, many people worry that the potential for an overheated economy is high, and there is little risk from too slow growth. Overheating in the economy, popularly known as the economic bubble, could reverse the current decline in inflation. Therefore, action should be taken to prevent such a thing from happening.

The purpose of monetary policy is to stabilize prices and make sure that economy is operating at full potential (stabilize employment and production). Data proves that both have been fulfilled. Price inflation is low at 2% and unemployment is close to 4%. (Bureau of Economic Analysis and Bureau of Labor Statistics) This low rate of unemployment, however, can be a problem for many businesses, because it can make finding qualified labor difficult. So, which move can be considered the most appropriate?
I feel that the best action is to tighten monetary policy. The economy is growing at a rate above its potential, as a result of high consumer spending, which is driven by swelling stock prices. Households and businesses are borrowing more and saving less. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there has been a steady decline in the unemployment and underemployment rates. The underemployed includes the unemployed, discouraged workers, and those working part-time that desire to work full-time. This aids in the 4% real GDP growth. While this may seem attractive, it is not desirable in an economy that is overheating, such as ours.
With the phenomenon of low unemployment comes high labor costs. Businesses spend large amounts of resources in hiring, labor retention, and in the training and educating of less qualified workers. Consequently, profit margins are falling. Earnings have fallen in the past year, however stock prices continue to increase at record highs. This is evidence that investors have extremely high expectations for the future earnings growth of their investments. Investors will be disappointed if earnings continue to lag. If the economy does not slow down, then businesses will have no choice but to raise the prices of their goods and services, or they will run the risk of seeing their stock price drop.

The small unemployment pool suggests that we should pay particular attention to inflation risks. The relationship between unemployment and inflation is illustrated by the Phillips Curve, named after the economist A.W. Phillips. This relationship exists because low employment is associated with high aggregate demand, and demand puts upward pressure on wages and prices throughout the economy. Therefore, it is probable that if the economy remains overheated, then inflation will rise.
The model of the Philips Curve is also related to the Model of Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply. This model shows the relationship between the price level and the quantity of output of goods and services. The higher the aggregate demand, the greater the output, and in turn, the lower the unemployment rate. The lower the aggregate demand, the lower the supply, and the higher the unemployment rate.
A decrease in the money supply, which can be accomplished by raising rates, will shift the aggregate demand curve to the left and move the economy to a point with low inflation and higher unemployment. This will not only keep the economy away from possible inflation, but it will also provide companies with a larger and more qualified applicant pool.

Raising the Federal Funds Rate (interest rate that banks charge each other) and the Discount Rate (interest on the loans that the Fed makes to banks) will decrease the demand by banks to borrow from the Fed. This leads to the reduction in the money supply. If the money supply within banks is reduced, then banks will raise their interest rates, which will discourage the non-bank public from borrowing, and encourage them to save. This in turn will reduce consumer spending. Inflation is at a very low point, and many economists, such as Alan

The Revolutionary War

Causes of the Revolutionary War
The haphazard and disorganized British rule of the American colonies in the decade prior to the outbreak led to the Revolutionary War. The mismanagement of the colonies, the taxation policies that violated the colonist right’s, the distractions of foreign wars and politics in England and mercantilist policies that benefited the English to a much greater degree then the colonists all show the British incompetence in their rule over the colonies. The policies and distractions were some of the causes of the Revolutionary War.

The interests of England within the colonies were self-centered. The English were trying to govern the colonies by using the mercantilist system. Mercantilism is when the state directs all the economic activities within it’s borders (Blum). England was not attempting to make any changes that would help the colonists. They limited the colonies commerce to internal trade only (Miller 9). The English were exploiting the colonies by demanding that the colonies import more from England then they exported to the colonies. They were importing raw materials from the colonies and making them into exportable goods in England. They would then ship these goods to foreign market all around the world including the colonists (America Online). Throughout the seventeenth century the English saw America as a place to get materials they didn’t have at home and a market to sell finished products after the goods had been manufactured. This was detrimental to the colonies because it prevented them from manufacturing any of the raw materials they produced, and made them more dependent upon England.

In addition to the unrest caused by their mercantilist policies, domestic political issues distracted them from the activities of the colonies. Throughout the sixteen hundreds, Great Britain was more involved in solving the Constitutional issue of who was to have more power in English government, the king or parliament. When this complex issue was finally resolved in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, England turned its attention back to the colonies and found that colonists had developed their own identity as Americans.

There was no central office in England to control what was happening in the colonies. The executive authority in England was divided among several ministers and commissioners that did not act quickly or in unison. Also, the Board of Trade, the body in England, did not have the power to make decisions or to enforce decrees. Due to the distractions from the complex constitutional issues and ineffective governmental organization, the colonists felt further separated from England (Blum 51).

The political scene in England was laced with corruption. Officers of the government sent to the colonies were often bribe-taking politicians that were not smart enough to hold government positions in England. After Grenville and Townshend, the most incompetent was Lord North, who became Prime Minister in 1770 after the death of Charles Townshend. “North was the kind of politician George had been looking for, a plodding, dogged, industrious man, neither a fool nor a genius, much like the king himself. For the next twelve years, despite the opposition of abler men, he remained at the head of the government (Blum 104).” Corruption and incompetence among governing politicians often made their rule over the colonies ineffective.

In the years leading up to the final decade before the American Revolution, the relationship between Great Britain and her colonies in North America continued to deteriorate. Relations began to worsen with the great victory over the French and Indians in the Seven Years War. Unwelcome British troops had remained in the colonies. Debts from this war caused the Prime Minister at the time, Lord Grenville, to debt that had doubled since 1754 (Blum 95).
England passed many Acts that were ill conceived and had long-term effects on the relationship between England and the colonies. The most controversial of these were direct taxes. The last time Parliament had tried a direct tax was as recent as 1765, when Lord Grenville enacted the Stamp Act which forced the colonists to pay or stamps on printed documents (Higginbotham 34). The Americans felt the taxes of Lord Grenville were “a deliberate aim to disinherit the colonists by denying them the rights of the English (Blum 96).” The first of these acts were

U.S Monetary Policy in 1995

U.S Monetary Policy in 1995
When Alan Greenspan presented the Federal Reserve’s semi-annual report
on monetary policy to the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Monetary
Policy, the Committee on Banking and Financial Services, and the U.S. House of
Representatives on February, Dr. Greenspan touted a cautionary yet favorable
view of the U.S. economy. He states that “With inflationary pressures
apparently receding, the previous degree of restraint in monetary policy was no
longer deemed necessary, and the FOMC consequently implemented a small reduction
in reserve market pressures last July.” (Greenspan, 1996, Speech)
During the Summer and Fall of 1995, the economy experienced a
strengthening of aggregate demand growth. According to Greenspan, this increase
in aggregate demand brought finished goods inventories and sales into near
equilibrium.The Fed’s fine tuning of the economy seemed to be paying off.

Greenspan had a positive outlook for the economy for the rest of 1995. He
states “the economy, as hoped has moved onto a trajectory that could be
maintained–one less steep than in 1994, when the rate of growth was clearly
unsustainable, but one that nevertheless would imply continued significant
growth and incomes.” (Greenspan, 1996, Speech)
Towards the end of the year, the economy showed signs of slowing.

Fearing a prolonged slowdown or even a recession in the economy, and with
inflationary expectations waning, Chairman Greenspan and the Federal Reserve cut
rates again in December. (Greenspan, 1996, Speech)
There are, of course, critics of 1995’s monetary policy. Most of the
criticism came in the early part of 1995 when the Fed raised rates again.

In the article “Are We Losing Altitude Too Fast” from the May 1, 1995
issue of Time magazine written by John Greenwald, he explains that the economy
might not be coming in for a “soft landing” like the fed predicts. Trying to
sustain 2 to 3 percent growth might lead us into a recession. Mr. Greenwald
explains how the Fed’s actions in 1994 and early 1995 has hurt individuals and
the economy as a whole. “Corporate layoffs are far from over,” says Greenwald,
“they generally accelerate when firms find themselves in an economy that is
weakening.” (Greenwald, Time, 5/1/95, p80)
Unemployment and layoffs aren’t the only thing to worry about according
to Mr. Greenwald. The automobile industry and the housing markets are both
getting hit in the pocket books. Paul Speigel, owner of a New York car
dealership explains his woes by saying ‘”We’re doing our best to keep up the
volume by discounting, working on our customers, but the Fed’s rate hikes have
dampened the ability of many Chevrolet customers to buy that new vehicle.”‘
John Tuccillo, chief economist for the National Association of Realtors states
that the market (for new housing) “fell apart as mortgage rates rose above 9%
last fall (1994), and still have not yet recovered.” (Greenwald, Time, May 1,
1995. p81)
Another outspoken, and cynical opponent to the Fed’s monetary policy is
Dr. Michael K. Evans, who is president of Evans Economics, Inc. and Evans
Investment Advisors, Boca Roton, Fla. Dr. Evans wote an article in the Aug. 21,
1995 issue of Industry Week entitled “The Gang that Wouldn’t Shoot Straight:
Fed’s Trample Over Their Own Rate Cut.”Dr. Evans contends that lowering the
federal funds rate in July was a mistake because the economy was already
starting to recover without tampering by the Fed. He claims Greenspan knew full
well that the economy was on the upswing, but cut rates anyway to try to ensure
his reappointment come March 1996.Dr. Evans claims that vice-Chairman Alan
Blinder also knew of the recovery but “he could not face his collegues at
Princeton when he returned, unless he pushed for a rate cut.” (Evans, Industry
Week, Aug. 21, 1995. p122)
Dr. Evans concludes that the Fed’s actions in July were “purposely
misleading, cravenly political, and just plain stupid.” (Evans, Industry Week,
Aug. 21, 1995. p122)
Many people applauded the actions of the Fed in 1995, and defend them
from the rampant “fed-bashing”.

One of the defenders of the Fed’s monetary policy and Alan Greenspan is
Rob Norton who wrote an article in the July 24, 1995 issue of Fortune entitled
“The Blaming of Dr. Greenspan. (Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan
Takes Blame for Economic Downturn).” Mr. Norton agrees with Greenspan that in
February 1995 it was essential to raise interest rates because of an
unsustainable rate of growth. He says that Greenspan was ahead of the game by
doing this. “The conventional wisdom crowd claimed that here was no reason to
fear that the economy was going